Spring has arrived, gardens are planted, and now, we eagerly await the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This spring awakening brings not only new plant life, but fungi also come out to feast. Phytophthora root rot is a common fungal disease in plants, infecting over 250 plant genera including peppers, tomatoes, berries, and eggplants. At least a hundred species of fungi are responsible for phytophthora root rot. Chemical efforts to treat phytophthora root rot have been ineffective to control disease and have mostly been banned. So what is a gardener or farmer to do? (more…)
When it comes to predators, we naturally think of large, agile, and powerful animals on the prowl. But we often don’t think about the most abundant predators on our planet, predators of the microscopic world. In the depths of the microbial universe, predatory bacteria (those that feast upon other bacteria) have emerged. These bacteria are now ubiquitous in terrestrial and marine environments. Predatory bacteria penetrate the outer membrane of bacterial prey and ingest their prized nutrients, killing the prey. (more…)
Halloween has finally arrived and everyone around you has been busy working on their costumes in anticipation for this glorious day of tricks and treats. Come Halloween night, you may not even recognize the faces behind the costumes. How would you tell apart friends with a sweet tooth from foes ready for some tricks?
For some bacteria, putting on costumes is an everyday event when it comes to tricking the immune system. The immune system distinguishes the body's own cells from those of invading bacteria and viruses. Since the microbe's outer membrane is usually the first thing the immune system sees, the body takes advantage of molecules found on the outer membrane to generate an immune response. This seems like a wise defense mechanism but microbes have several tricks up their sleeves; they disguise themselves from the immune response by changing molecules on their outer membrane (antigenic variation) or by turning on and off expression of genes encoding for surface molecules (phase variation). (more…)
Imagine you are at a picnic on a nice sunny day. Several bees stop by buzzing around your food particularly intrigued by a bowl of fruit. Though bees may be a nuisance on this particular day, they serve an essential role in the production of much of the food we eat. They produce honey, beeswax and other products we enjoy. Bees are also crucial in pollination and without honey bees, we may not be able to enjoy fruits, nuts, and vegetables that we do today.
In the past decades, the honey bee population have declined rapidly. Between April 2015 and March 2016, beekeepers lost 44.1% of their colonies. This decline in the honey bee population could be due to many reasons including pesticides, parasites, and disease. More curiously, many colonies have fallen to colony collapse disorder (CCD), where adult worker bees die-off and surprisingly, no dead bees are found in or around the hives. The exact cause of CCD is not completely known thought many have attributed pesticides, pathogens, antibiotics, and climate change as the cause. (more…)